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Prophets of God

Descriptions of the Prophets of God  5
(from Anwar-al-‘Ashiqin by Ahmet Bijan)

Know then, oh ye who wish to learn divine secrets that I have set forth herein the stories of the prophets as they have been transmitted to us through the traditions and commentaries, in the Torah, the Zabur, the Injil and the Holy Quran in clear language and most pleasing style. It is confirmed beyond doubt in the sublime verses of the Holy Quran, in convincing signs and with evident miracles that the Holy Prophet, Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, is the Seal of the Prophets and the Prince among the Messengers.

Let us now mention the decrees of divine ordinance as revealed to various prophets and explanations pertaining thereto; after which we shall discuss the law brought by the Prince of the Universe and the Essence of all Creation, Muhammad, on whom be peace, inshaAllah.


Let it be known that in the time of Adam  u, the first man and the first Prophet, judgment was pronounced according to the following procedure: after a sacrificial offering was made, one had only to wait. If a fire came down from Heaven to consume the sacrifice, the claimant was in the right; if, however, he was wrong, no fire came down to consume his sacrificial offering, and thereby he was judged.


In the time of the Prophet Nuh  u, judgment proceeded in this way: when two litigants appeared before a court, they were both placed within a fire. If the fire burned one of them, he was judged to be in the wrong; the one who was not burnt by the fire was judged to be in the right.


In Da’ud’s  u time, justice was achieved by the following means: a chain was hung suspended in court. The litigant who was able to reach up to the chain was thought to be in the right, the one who failed to reach it, was judged to be in the wrong.


In the time of Sulayman  u legal cases were decided as follows: there was a pit in King Sulayman’s  u retreat. If two people came before the king, they were led to the pit, and he whose foot sank into the pit was judged as being in the right, while the other was judged as being wrong.


In Prophet Zakaria’s  u time judgment was pronounced thus: Zakaria  u had two iron pens. When two people came before him seeking a legal decision, he would write their names upon these pens and place them in a container of water. The pen that floated to the surface bore the name of the litigant, who won his case, while the pen that sank to the bottom bore the loser’s name.


The Prophet Musa  u was given the Torah and all judgment proceeded according to its law.


The Prophet ‘Isa  u was given the Injil and justice was done according to its precepts.

Then dawned the time of the most perfect being of all creation, our noble Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, who brought us the highest and most complete law (Shari’a) that has ever existed, and who said:

It is for the plaintiff to bring forward evidence (for his case), and for the defendant (who protests his innocence) to place himself under oath.

And praise be to Him who has made us to belong to the nation of the Prophet of the best of all religions. Truly, He, Allah is full of Mercy and Compassion.

Oh ye who are versed in holy knowledge! Oh ye who seek to meet your Lord Almighty! Ye who have attained your goal! Who have set out in quest of divine secrets! In this book you will find all the knowledge of truth and the source of divine knowledge, inasmuch as Allah Almighty – exalted be He – has made it plain to the people of perfection through emanations of both general and particular nature. However, it is not disclosed herein in which aspect any of the prophets may be superior to any other, be it from consideration of the spiritual essence or some other reason, but Allah knows best the truth of any matter and its hidden implications. This humble dervish, Ahmet Bijan, was thrown thereby into a state of confusion and entrusted himself entirely to the guidance of the Almighty and the pure soul of the Prophet Muhammad, on whom be peace. The Almighty then made clear to me some matters mentioned in the compiled works of the commentators.


Now it should be known that each of the prophets was distinguished by attributes from the attributes of Allah, and that emanations of His holy names were manifested in them and that each became known by an unmistakable spiritual flavor and a distinct revelation. Therefore, Adam u was the original model, as it were, both in his physical form and his spiritual composition, and Allah willed it so that Adam u became the father of mankind.

As regards Adam’s u inner truth and spiritual reality, it is from the light of the name of Allah’s essence, and this is His proper name: Allah. His mind and heart are from the light of two divine attributes: one of them is the Merciful (ar-Rahim), and one is the Compassionate (ar-Rahman), inasmuch as Allah Almighty has spoken:

And for Mercy I have created you, oh Adam!

Therefore Adam u was distinguished from both high and low through mercy. Adam’s u self was created from the light of Allah’s action. Al-Badi’, the Creator, the Originator, whereby the singularity of Adam’s u creation is indicated: he was made unlike and not resembling any other created being: he is the original specimen.


When Seth u was given to Adam u as a “gift of God”, he was made to resemble his father in form. As regards Seth’s u inner truth and spiritual reality, it is made from the light of the Name of divine essence, and it is the name: Malik, the owner, inasmuch as Seth u became the owner of the world after his father Adam u. His mind and heart are from the light of the divine attribute: al-Barr, the Pious, the Good, and for that Seth u was extremely good and compassionate towards his parents. Allah sent Seth u to Adam u and Hawa to make up for the loss of their beloved son Habil (Abel). Seth’s u self was from the light of two divine actions: one was al-Jami’, the Gatherer, the other: al-Mughni, the Enriched, the Independent, for after his father it was Seth u in whom was gathered all the perfection of mankind, thus he can be said to be rich and independent of all but Allah Almighty.


The Prophet Idris u was granted ascension to the heavens during his lifetime where he mingled with the angels and the insubstantial spirits. For ten years he remained with them, during which time he never once ate, drank or slept at all, so that his mind became free and cut off from all ties of material existence. In this exclusive devotion he was the predecessor of the Prophet Nuh u, and such was his holy station in the divine presence. His inner truth and spiritual reality were of the light of Allah’s essence, and this is al-Quddus, the Hallowed, the All-Holy. His mind and heart are from the light of the divine attribute al-Muta’al, the Elevated, the Supreme, which refers to the high station assigned to him by the Almighty, as it is written in the Holy Quran:

We raised him up to a high place.                                          (Maryam, 57)

His self was from the light of two divine actions: one of them ar-Rafi’, that is He who raises aloft, and al-Basit, that is He who spreads, extends, inasmuch as Idris u was raised up to the heavens and found his enjoyment in looking down upon the worlds spread out beneath him.


As for Nuh u: when his people began to ascribe human characteristics to Allah and to worship idols, Nuh u was sent as a prophet to call them to the Truth and to purify their beliefs, for essentially Allah’s attributes and actions are free from any attribute of form or similitude. Nuh uwas sent to heal them by proclaiming the message that Allah was free from any defect. His inner truth and spiritual reality are from the light of the name of Allah’s Essence which is as-Salam, the Giver of Safety, for that he made them safe from idolatry (anthropomorphism) and from drowning (in the flood), as it is written in the Holy Quran:

It was said, ‘Noah, get thee down in peace from Us, and blessings upon thee and on the nations of those with thee.                        (Hud, 50)

His heart and mind are from the light of the divine attributes as-Shakur, the Grateful, as it is written in the Holy Quran:

The seed of those We bore with Noah; He was a thankful servant.

                                                                        (The Night Journey, 3)

His self is from the light of two divine actions: al-Muntaqim, the Avenger, and al-Hafiz, the Keeper, Protector; for Nuh u avenged himself on the enemies of Allah and sent them down to the lowest pits in Hell.


When Idris u through his veneration, and Nuh u through his belief in Allah’s freedom from defect had established a true description of divinity, and Allah’s Oneness had become manifest, the Prophet Hud u was sent to his people to invite them to the creed of unity; thus his inner truth and spiritual reality are from the light of the Name of Allah’s Essence which is al-Mu’min, the Believer. For the path of righteousness lies solely in Iman (faith) and Islam (submission to the divine will).

His heart and mind are from the Light of the divine attribute al-Qahhar, the Overwhelming, the Crushing; thus Hud u crushed the pagans with a wasting wind. His self was from the Name of two divine actions: al-Hadi, the Guide and ad-Darr, He who sends harm, for that Hud u sought to guide his people upon Allah’s paths, while they chose to persist in their stubbornness and Allah therefore punished them with harm, and they remain forever in the darkness of their unbelief.


After the divinity had manifested through devotion, through purity and unity, the appearance of a cause was decreed, created from the keys to the unseen world. As for Salih u, his inner truth and spiritual reality were from the light of the divine essence, al-Muhaymin, the Guardian, Protector which also means the Witness, for that Allah Almighty saw it fit to show him His creative power. His heart and mind were of the light of the divine attribute al-Muhsi, which is the Reckoner, for that Salih u counted three days for his people as the duration of their destruction.

His self is from the name of two divine actions: one is al-Fattah, the Opener, the other is al-Qabid, the Constrictor. His act of opening occurred when he brought forth the camel from the rock, and his constricting lay in his reproaching his people for their excessive love of this dunya and their complete absorption in its pleasures. In the end they perished and were deprived of all they had ever coveted.


As for Ibrahim u: after the divine perfection had shown itself through the manifestation of devotion, purity, unity and asceticism, divine love made its appearance in Ibrahim Khalil-ullahu, the Friend of God. Nimrod, driven by his commanding self, engaged on a dispute with this prophet, and in order to test whether he was truly a prophet and not a liar or impostor, he had him thrown into the fire. Nimrod’s fire, “Nar-i-Ibrahim”, was turned into a garden of light for the Prophet. His inner truth and spiritual reality are from the light of the divine essence, al-Aziz, the Glorious, for that Allah made him great despite the unbelievers’ insults. He attained great honor in the divine presence and was shown the heavenly worlds and spiritual kingdom. His heart and mind are from the light of the divine attribute al-Halim, the Clement, as it is written in the Holy Quran:

Abraham was compassionate, clement.                                (Repentance, 115)

Therefore, it was given to Ibrahim u to be forbearing towards all and everyone. His self was from the Name of two divine actions: ar-Razzaq, the Provider, and ar-Rashid, the Righteous. Allah Almighty gave to Ibrahim u the means for providing, and through him provision became manifest. Regarding his quality of righteousness, it is written in the Holy Quran:

We gave Abraham aforetime his rectitude, for We knew him when he said to his father and his people…                       (The Prophets, 53)


As for Ismail u: after the divine love had manifested in Ibrahim u, Ibrahim u gave away his life and soul on the path of love; consequently, by divine decree he fathered two prophets to be his successors. One of them was distinguished by his willingness to surrender his very soul, namely the Prophet Ismail u, while the Prophet Ishaq u was distinguished by his resistance to his carnal impulses.

As for Ismail u, his inner truth and spiritual reality were from the light of the name of the divine essence al-Jabbar, the Compelling, for that he mortified his flesh for the sake of divine love and for that he constrained his soul to comply with the divine will. Therefore, Allah Almighty sent a large ram to be sacrificed in his stead. His heart and mind were from the light of the divine attribute al-Halim, the Mild, Forbearing, for that he showed great forbearance in the face of the divine decree, as it is written in the Holy Book:

Then We gave him good tidings of a prudent boy….              (The Rangers, 101)

His self was of the names of three divine actions: one of them was al-Mujib, He who replies; another was al-Hasib, He who takes account; and finally there was ar-Raqib, He who is on guard, for Ismail u replied to the divine command and acquiesced; he bowed to his father’s orders and controlled his lower self through watchfulness.


As for Ishaq u: when Ibrahim u was flung into the ocean of love, his soul was transformed into the precious substance of which are made all the holy spirits. Therefore it was said that no prophet would come to the spiritual world except he be a descendant of Ishaq u, the sole exception being our Prophet Muhammad (on whom be peace and blessings) who was descended from Ismail u, and Allah Almighty alone knows the secret that lies hidden therein.

This much, however, can be said: Ibrahim’s u soul was created from the secret of divine unity, while his carnal soul, his self, was made from the plurality of secrets of the divine decrees. Therefore, Allah’s unity was manifested through Ismail u, while Ishaq u was made to be the wellhead of plurality, the father of multitudes. His inner truth and spiritual reality were from the light of the divine essence, al-Mutakabbir, the Proud. His heart and mind were from the light of the divine attribute ar-Ra’uf, the Clement, the Benign. Therefore he was of great mildness towards the believers. His ego was of the name of two divine actions: al-Wakil, the Deputy, the Representative; and al-Ba’ith, the Inspirer, the Awakener. Therefore he was made steward over the treasury of blessed souls (i.e. the prophets).


As for Ya’qub u: When the souls of the prophets began to appear in the material world, the first to come was Ya’qub u, for he was made to be the storehouse for the ordinances of the majority of prophets that were yet to come, and he became the father of twelve sons. Allah Almighty deigned to create one of these as the mirror image of the beauty of divine light. Ya’qub u perceived this light and fell in love and remained in bewilderment before this divine beauty. When it was later removed from his sight, he fell into a state of grief at this separation, and was beset by an abiding melancholy. For love is the fruit of affection, and grief is one of its necessary adjuncts, wherefore the people of perfection have ever maintained that love requires beauty and beauty necessitates calamity, while calamity brings grief.

Yaqub’s u inner truth and spiritual reality were from the light of the name of the divine essence al-Kabir, the Great, for that he was a begetter of prophets and thus a great treasure for his people, the sons of Israil. His heart and mind were of the light of the divine attribute al-Wadud, the All-Loving; therefore he fell in love when the divine beauty manifested in the person of his son Yusuf u. His self was of the names of two divine actions: al-Khaliq, the Creator, and al-Bari, the Maker; therefore he begat a large number of sons.


As for Yusuf u: when the love of Ya’qub u necessitated a manifestation of divine light, Yusuf uwas born into the world as the perfection of beauty. His inner truth and spiritual reality were of the light of the name of the divine essence, and Yusuf u embodied this divine light. Therefore, whoever gazed upon him fell in love, even so his father, his mother and his brethren who all were enraptured by his beauty and fell down in prostration before him. His heart and mind were from the light of the divine attribute al-Qadir, the Powerful, wherefore he became powerful in the land of Egypt. His self was of the names of three divine actions: al-Musawwir, the Designer, He who forms, for he appeared in the most perfectly formed shape; al-Hafiz, the Protector, for he kept the storehouses of Egypt under his care; and al-Afuw, the Forgiving, for that he forgave his brethren (for their crime against him).


As for Ayyub u: If love had become manifest in Ya’qub u, and beauty in his son Yusuf u, the Divine Will thereupon decreed the appearance of another prophet who was to be subjected to trials and suffering, for love is necessarily associated with pain.

Therefore Ayyub u was born into this world and suffered all manner of affliction, as troubles are the prerogative of the Friends of God. It is transmitted to us that the Holy Prophet Muhammad (on whom be peace) once said:

Affliction is one of the whips of Allah with which He drives His servants towards Himself.

Ayyub’s u inner truth and spiritual reality was from the light of the name of the divine essence al-Ghani, the Wealthy, for after he had been stripped of all his wealth and family, Allah Almighty gave back to him what he had lost, and made Ayyub u rich not once, but twice. His heart and mind were of the light of the divine attribute as-Sabur, the Long-Suffering, the Patient, inasmuch as the Almighty proclaims in the Holy Quran:

Surely We found him a steadfast man. How excellent a servant he was! He was a penitent.              (Sa`ad, 44)

Ayyub’s u self was made from the light of two divine actions. One
of them was al-Wasi’, the Copious, the Comprehending, and the other
at-Tawwab, the Oft-Returning, the Penitent. For he was able to carry the burden of so many afflictions, and returned always to his Lord, penitent.


As for Shu’ayb u: following the Prophet Ayyub u who had manifested all the trials of affliction on the path of love, Allah Almighty wished to send a prophet who was consumed by a fervent desire to be united in the meeting with his Lord.

Thus Shu’ayb u was sent to the material world. From his exceeding love of God he wept for three hundred years, and thrice he became blind. Once every hundred years his eyes opened and he saw again. His inner truth and spiritual reality were of the light of the name of the divine essence al-Majid, the Illustrious; therefore he became a chieftain of his people and earned the title of “preacher of the prophets”. His heart and mind were of the light of the divine attribute al-Karim, the Generous, the Munificent, for his kindness toward his nation was great. His self was of the light of two divine actions: al-Hakam, the Ruler, and al-Muqsit, the Just, the Equitable, for he governed his people and judged them at all times, exhorting them to measure with just measure.


Regarding Musa u: when the love of Allah had manifested perfectly through the friendship of Khalilullah (Ibrahim u), the passionate ecstasy of Ya’qub u, the beauty of Yusuf u, the patience of Ayyub u and the ardent yearning of Shu’ayb u, the Almighty decreed that they be succeeded by a prophet embodying perfectly the Majesty of Allah, who would completely vanquish the misguided unbelievers. Therefore Musa u was sent to this world of material existence. His inner truth and spiritual reality were of the light of the name of the divine essence al-Jalil, the Mighty, Majestic, and al-’Ali, the High, the Lofty, for that he had vanquished the foes of the Lord and risen above them, as He Almighty says in the Holy Quran:

Fear not, surely thou art the uppermost.                                     (TaHa, 20)

His heart and mind were of the light of the divine attribute al-’Alim, the Wise, the Knowing, for he was knowledgeable in the learning of the Torah, and the Torah was the book of law for all prophets up until the time of ‘Isa u, the son of Maryam. His self was of the light of two divine actions: one al-Mu’izz, the Exalter, the other al-Mudhil, the Abaser, for that he exalted the station of the believers while abasing the unbelievers.


As for Harun u: after the appearance of a majestic prophet, the Grace of God willed a prophet of Mercy to succeed him. Thus Harun u was sent to be a helpmate to Musa u, as Allah Almighty says in the Holy Quran:

Appoint for me of my folk a familiar, Aaron, my brother…             (TaHa, 30)

His inner truth and spiritual reality were of the light of two names of the divine essence: az-Zahir, the Manifest, the Outward, and al-Batin, the Hidden, the Inward, for his kindness was manifest while his secret was unrevealed, hidden. His heart and mind were of the light of the divine attribute al-Ghafar, the Pardoner; thus Allah Almighty forgave the sins of his nation. His self was made of the light of two divine actions: one al-Ghafur, the All-Forgiving, the other al-Latif, the Fine, the Subtle. Therefore he covered the sins of his nation and showed them subtle kindness.


As for Ilyas u: when Allah Almighty had manifested His Majesty and His Mercy, the divine will ordained for these prophets to be succeeded by a prophet who would explain their works to the world. His inner truth and spiritual reality were from the light of the divine essence. Therefore his people needed him to give them various healing plants. His heart and mind were of the light of the divine attribute: al-Jamil, the All-Gracious. His self was of the light of two divine actions, al-Wahhab, the Bestower, and al-Muqtadir, the Powerful, the Mighty. It was given to him that he should ascend the mountain of the Lebanon and regard things on earth below and in the heavens above as the angels do.


As for Da’ud u: after the manifestation of divine majesty and divine mercy had reached completion, Allah Almighty willed a prophet to come into the world who was to suffer the affliction of love of Allah and many other troubles, and he was to be tried with the trials of beauty. Thus Da’ud u came into this world. His inner truth and spiritual reality were of the light of the name of the divine essence: al-Hakim, the Absolutely Wise, inasmuch as Allah Almighty has said:

…and We gave him wisdom and speech decisive….                         (Sa`ad, 20)

His heart and mind were of the light of the divine attribute al-Qawwiy, the Strong, the Mighty One, wherefore he became a strong and mighty ruler, as it is written in the Holy Quran:

We strengthened his kingdom…                                                (Sa`ad, 20)

His self was of the light of two divine actions: one was al-Muqaddim, He who causes to precede; the other was al-Muakhkhir, He who delays; wherefore he sent the commander Uriah out to battle in front of the Ark of the Covenant while he himself stayed behind. When he repented of his wrongful action, he was made to be Allah’s representative on earth.


As for Sulayman u: after Da’ud u had witnessed the wonders which Allah revealed to him, after he had endured the afflictions Allah tried him with and wept for a full forty years, the divine will decreed a prophet to succeed him whose kingdom should be even greater and stronger than that of Da’ud u, so that his sovereignty should attain a degree of perfection. Thus Sulayman uwas born into a position of worldly power. His inner truth and spiritual reality were of the light of the name of the divine essence al-’Azim, the Magnificent, the Glorious; therefore he rose to eminence above the people of this world.

His heart and mind were of the light of the divine attribute al-Matin, the Firm, the Trustworthy, wherefore his kingship, his judgment and his knowledge were sound and firmly grounded. His self was of four divine actions: one was al-’Adl, the Just; the second was Malik-al-Mulk, the Lord over worldly and spiritual dominion; the third, al-Hafiz, the Protector, the Keeper, and the fourth: ar-Rafi’, the Exalter. He was just because he practiced perfect equity towards anyone he met; he was a protector because he set anyone who raised his head against him firmly in his place, be he of mankind or of the Jinn; he was exalted because his throne, when he mounted it, rose up into the air with him; and he was Lord over all dominions because by divine decree he was made ruler over all peoples.


As for ‘Uzayr u: when the perfection of kingship had been achieved through the rule of Sulayman u, the divine will decreed that he be succeeded by another prophet who was to be witness to many workings of the other world, such as coming to life again after having been dead, and he was made to witness absolute certainty, as it is written in the Holy Quran:

So We would make thee a sign for the people….                       (The Cow, 187)

Thus ‘Uzayr u was born to the world. His inner truth and spiritual reality were of the light of two names of the divine essence, al-Awwal, the First, and al-Akhir, the Last. He was the first because in his life he witnessed his former condition; then he died. And he was last, because after death he witnessed his own coming back to life a second time. His heart and mind were of the light of two divine attributes, as-Sami’, the All-Hearing, and al-Basir, the All-Seeing. He was hearing because he heard the Word of the Lord, inasmuch as He speaks in the Holy Quran:

Nay, thou hast tarried a hundred years.                                (The Cow, 263)

He was seeing because he perceived himself in his second life. His self was of the light of the divine action al-Wali, the Guardian, the Trusted Friend, as he was trusted to witness the perfection of divine power.


As for Yunus u: after Allah Almighty had shown various aspects of His power, one example being the Prophet ‘Uzayr u, His divine will caused another prophet to be sent to the world, who enjoyed divine protection, even though he was made to live in the depths of the sea and to make his home in the belly of a fish. Thus Yunus u was born into the world. His inner truth and spiritual reality were of the light of the name of divine essence: al-Wajid, He who brings into existence, the Creator, by reason of his light-filled existence in which there was no darkness. His heart and mind were of the light of the divine attribute: al-Ghafur, the Pardoner, for that he attained forgiveness from his Lord and was saved from drowning and rescued from his solitary confinement.


For Allah Almighty says in the Holy Quran:

So We answered him and delivered him out of grief; even so do We deliver the believers.                    (The Prophets, 86)

His self was of the light of two divine actions: one was al-Muqit, the Nourisher, the other was an-Nafi’, the Beneficial. Allah nourished him by spiritual fortification when he resided in the belly of the fish. He was helpful to people when he lived among them, and they benefited from him.


As for Zakaria u: when by the Grace of the Almighty the quickening of the dead had been achieved in ‘Uzayr u, and by divine munificence His Protection had been extended, the divine will decreed the succession of two prophets who both willingly gave their lives in the way of union with the divine. Thus Zakaria u and Yahya u came into the world.

Zakaria’s u inner truth and spiritual reality were from the light of the name of the divine essence al-Qayyum, the Eternal, Self-Existent. He became permanently established in the love of Allah and was so steadfast therein that even when he was hewn into two pieces he was able to persevere in patience.

His heart and mind were of the light of the divine attribute al-Hamid, the Praiseworthy, for through his actions he became worthy of praise. He even gave his life and soul in the way of Allah. His self was of the light of two names of the divine essence: one was al-Muhiy, the Life-Giver, the Quickener, the other was al-Majid, the Most Glorious, for his Lord called to him and spoke: “I have given you a son and I have called him Wali. His is to inherit his father’s knowledge as well as to give new life to his father’s name.” That is how the names al-Muhiy and al-Majid came to be manifested.


As for Yahya u: when Zakaria u had given away his life and soul for the love of God, the divine will decreed for a prophet endowed with perfection to succeed him and so necessitated his appearance. Thus Yahya u came into the world. His inner truth and spiritual reality were of the light of the name of the divine essence al-Haqq, the Truth. This name was given to him for his great endurance in preaching and his outstanding spiritual vision. His heart and mind were of the light of three divine attributes: al-Warith, the Inheritor; ash-Shahid, the All-Witnessing, and al-Baqi, the Permanent, Remaining. He inherited his father’s knowledge; therefore he is an inheritor, an heir. He witnessed the unseen world as well as being martyred in the way of Allah; therefore he is a full witness. Allah Almighty Himself bears witness to Yahya u:

Yahya has never sinned against Me; therefore, I do also love him.

Therefore, it is inevitable that the lover who is slain on the path of the beloved becomes permanently united with his beloved.

His self was of the light of a divine attribute, al-Wali, the Saint, the Friend of God. For none of Yahya’s u actions was ever rooted in any motivation of his lower soul.


As for ‘Isa u: when the divine and universal order of things had reached its maturity, the divine will decreed the appearance of a prophet who would awake the dead and manifest many miracles and divine signs, so that knowledgeable and informed folk no longer could deny that Allah quickens the dead. For Allah has revealed:

That is how Allah brings the dead to life again….                        (Baqara, 73)

Thus ‘Isa u came to this world. `Isa’s u inner truth and spiritual reality were from the light of the name of the divine essence, al-Ahad, the One, for that he came to be born without a father, and was living proof for the Unity of God. His heart and mind were of the light of the divine attributes al-Wahid and al-Khabir. He is al-Wahid, the Only, for that in both the physical and the spiritual world he is unique. As for al-Khabir, it is because he encompassed the knowledge of both the manifest and the hidden. As Allah has revealed in the Holy Quran:

…and I have taught you (to write) the book, and wisdom, the Torah and the Injil. 

                                                                               (The Table, 110)

The knowledge obtained from the Torah is outer knowledge, while that of the Injil is inner, spiritual knowledge. His self was of the light of three divine actions: al-Muhiy, the Life-Giver; al-Mumiyt, the Life-Taker; and al-Khaliq, the Creator. He is Muhiy on account of his raising the dead to life again.


When the perfection of the divine had completed its manifestation in the realities of men, on earth as in the unseen world, the divine will necessitated the coming of yet another prophet in whom all qualities of perfection would be expressed, and he was to be a messenger and all signs would be manifested in his person. This prophet was to be Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him), Habibullah, the Beloved of Allah. In him are gathered all the (achievable) stations of this base world and the spiritual world separately and collectively. His spiritual reality encompasses the entirety of spiritual realities; he is a prophet in this world, as he is also a prophet in the world of spirits, and in the world of the divine.

After ‘Isa u departed from this world, nearly six hundred years went by before the Seal of the Prophets and Prince of all Messengers came to the world. Inasmuch as Allah Almighty has spoken in the Holy Quran:

People of the Book, now there has come to you Our Messenger, making clear to
you many things You have been concealing of the Book, and effacing many things. There has come to you from God a light, and a Book manifest whereby God
guides whosoever follows His good pleasure in the ways of peace, and brings
them forth from the shadows into the light by His leave: and He guides them
to a straight path.                                                      (The Table, 17-18)

As Muhammad {s} was of Light, his station in the Lord’s Presence was an exalted one. His inner truth is of the truth of all truths, and his name is the greatest name, it combines all divine names and attributes within itself. His spiritual reality is from the light of the divine essence itself. His mind is from the light of the names of the divine essence. His heart is from the light of all the divine attributes combined. His self is from the light of the names of all divine actions.

When Allah Almighty sent him to perform his prophetic mission, He made him the Prince of all divine messengers, and He sent him as a mercy to the worlds, as it is revealed:

We have not sent thee, save as a mercy unto all beings.          (The Prophets, 107)

And Allah gave him knowledge of the stories of all the prophets who had gone before him. Thereafter Allah spoke to him: “Be patient, practice the patience of Asiya (wife of Pharoah)!” As He says in the Holy Quran:

So be thou patient, as the Messengers possessed of constancy were also patient. 

                                                                         (The Sand Dunes, 35)

By the “Messengers possessed of constancy” (the “ulul-’azm”) are meant the great prophets like Nuh u who was patient with the great troubles his people heaped upon him; and like Ibrahim u who was patient in the face of the fire of Nimrod; and Ismail u who was patient as he was about to be sacrificed; and as Ya’qub u was patient during his separation from Yusuf u, and with the blindness that beset him on account of the pain he felt; as Yusuf u was patient when he was cast into a well and later thrown into prison; as Ayyub u showed patience in the midst of so very many trials, and as Musa u was patient with the injustice and violence of his people. Da’ud u patiently wept for forty years over the mistake he had made. Yunus u was patient when he was swallowed by the fish. Zakaria u was patient when he was sawn in half. Yahya u was patient when he was martyred in the way of Allah Almighty. ‘Isa u was patient while laying brick upon brick, and he said:

Truly, the world is but a bridge; seek to pass over it, and do not try to repair it.

Therefore, should they ask you: how are the prophets able to perform their calling of inviting people to the Truth while they are aware of Him at every station? Then the answer is as follows: the Lord has placed a veil of light between His prophets and Himself. By means of these veils they are able to address their people.

Some have also said: In the world of spirits Allah Almighty counseled His prophets thus: “I have sent you to My servants living in the world of base matter: therefore, show them no anger by ascribing to them certain actions, and veil yourselves from Me. Likewise, show them no pleasure on account of certain actions which they ascribe to themselves, and remain veiled from them also through spiritual concealment, for it is upon you to perceive the Lord Almighty in people, and to discern the people in the Almighty.”

Know then that no one may reach the inner secrets of the prophets, and no one may know their states but Allah Almighty. Oh ye who are seekers of the divine! Of this you must be mindful: to follow from beginning to end what I have made clear to you, without deviating into denial or falsehood, but by keeping to the path of moderation and admonition. So that, perhaps, in the end you will comprehend the highest form of wisdom, and maybe at the final outcome you will drink of the wine of knowledge. For I have made plain the code of Divine Law of the prophets, their spiritual realities and their exemplary conduct; you must hold them in highest respect and try to follow their example.

In their stories is surely a lesson to men possessed of minds. (Joseph, 111)

Insha’Allah, we will now attempt to complete our instruction, to inform of the outer and inner aspects of religious law, and of the attributes and qualities of the Prophet Muhammad, on whom be blessings and peace.

Created Through the Light of Muhammad   5

Praise be to Allah, the Exalted, the Wise; He who created man for Himself, possesses the entire universe.

Oh ye wishing to apprehend the divine secrets! Know then that Allah Almighty laid in the Prophet Muhammad {s} the base for the edifice of the prophets (on all of whom be peace), and that in him He would complete it; and to him He revealed the Glorious Book of the Quran. In it He has made plain his authority, and He has described him in all the holy books, theTorah (Old Testament), the Zabur (Psalms), the Injil (New Testament)and the Furqan (the Quran).

He has made him perfect by giving him the Liwa-al-Hamd, the Banner of Praise, and theMaqam-al-Mahmud, the Station of the Praiseworthy, thereby making him the light of both worlds, messenger to both Jinn and men, and enabling him to attain the secrets of proximity to the divine station by two bows’ lengths, and becoming the king of the world. Peace and blessings be upon his pure and meritorious family and his worthy companions who are pursuing the way of greatest righteousness.

Then Allah Almighty spoke thus:

Alif. Lam. Mim. Allah, there is no god but He, the Living, the Everlasting. He has sent down upon thee the Book with the truth, confirming what was before it, and He sent down the Torah and the Gospel aforetime, as guidance to the people and He sent down Salvation. As for those who disbelieve in God’s Signs, for them awaits a terrible chastisement; God is Almighty, Vengeful.                       

                                                                   (The House of Imran, 1-4)

  • And in a Hadith al-Qudsi He has said: “Were it not for you, I would not have created the universe.”
  • It is related by Abdullah bin Abbas that the Holy Prophet {S} said:
    “The very first thing that Allah Almighty ever created was my soul.”
  • In another place he is reported to have said: “First of all things, the Lord created my mind.”{ AGL}
  • In yet another place he is to have said: “I am from Allah, and the believers are from me.”

How many proofs has He not brought to bear that all existent things are from Him, and that her, is more excellent than all of creation!

The Qutb-al-Muhaqqiqin, the most eminent of those who verify, Sayyidina ‘Ali, has said:

  • Before the Lord Almighty created the divine throne and the divine court, Heaven and Hell, the worlds and the skies,
  • He created the light of our Prophet Muhammad {s}.
  • He created his soul three hundred twenty-four years before He created the soul of Adam u.

Thereafter Allah Almighty created twelve veils, namely:

  • the veils of power,
  • grandeur,
  • kindness,
  • mercy,
  • bliss,
  • munificence,
  • high station,
  • guidance,
  • prophecy,
  • eminence,
  • awe, and
  • the veil of intercession.

Thereafter the Prophet’s r soul remained wrapped in the veil of power for twelve thousand years; and for eleven thousand years it remained within the veil of grandeur. For ten thousand years it remained in the veil of kindness; for nine thousand years in the veil of mercy; for eight thousand years in the veil of bliss; for seven thousand years in the veil of munificence; for six thousand years in the veil of high station; for five thousand years in the veil of guidance; for four thousand years in the veil of prophethood; for three thousand years in the veil of eminence; for two thousand years in the veil of awe; and for one thousand years his soul remained in the veil of intercession.

  • After this it stayed on the divine throne for six thousand years.
  • Thereafter the Lord Almighty took it and brought it to the offspring of Adam’s u loins.
  • From Adam’s u loins it passed to Seth u, from Seth u to Idris u and from Idris u to Nuhu.
  • Thus it was transferred all the way down to Abdullah bin Abdul-Muttalib. Finally it came to this world in the city of Mecca.

It is reported that the Lord Almighty created a tree from the light of him who is the pride of the world. This tree had four branches, and it was called the tree of certainty.

  • The light of Muhammad {s} was manifested as a veil made of white pearls.
  • It was placed upon this tree shaped as a peacock, and there it remained for one thousand years,
  • steeped in the remembrance of Allah Almighty.
  • Then the Lord created the mirror of modesty and placed it opposite the peacock.
  • When the peacock looked into the mirror, he beheld a most beautiful face and form in it, and it became shamed before its glorious aspect, and prostrated itself five times.
  • Therefore, five daily prayers became incumbent upon us, from that prostration.
  • The Lord Almighty trained His gaze upon that light once more.
  • From shame, that light began to perspire under the gaze of the Almighty.
  • From the sweat upon his brow, the Almighty then created the angels.
  • From the sweat upon his face, He created the throne, the divine court, the tablets and the pen, the sun, the moon and the stars.
  • From the sweat upon his breast, He created the prophets and the messengers, the holy martyrs and the men of knowledge, and those of righteousness.
  • From the sweat on his feet He then created the worlds and what is contained within them, up to the lowest of all stations of Hell and what is in it.

Then the Lord Almighty spoke: “Oh Muhammad, look before you!” Muhammad {s} did so and he saw that all was replete with light.

  • The light before him was the light of Abu Bakr.
  • The light behind him was the light of ‘Umar.
  • The light to his right was the light of ‘Uthman,
  • the light to his left was the light of ‘Ali, may Allah be well pleased with them all.
  • Then the light of Muhammad {s} began to praise the Lord for seventy thousand years.
  • After this, the souls of the prophets were created.

When Allah had created the souls of the prophets, they all spoke
La ilaha illAllah, Muhammad-ur-Rasulullah.

Then Allah created a lamp.

  • He placed the soul of Muhammad {s} upon this lamp in the very same shape he was to appear in this world, and he was as if in prayer.
  • The souls of all the prophets performed tawaf (circumambulation) around the soul of Muhammad {s} for two hundred thousand years.
  • Then the Lord ordered them to look at Muhammad {s}.
  • The souls then gazed upon him.
  • Whoever gazed upon his head became a king in this world.
  • He whose gaze fell upon his forehead became one of the just. He who espied his chest became a man of learning.
  • In brief, whichever part of his blessed body the soul cast its gaze upon, it was endowed with just such an art or craft as corresponded to that member.

Thereafter Allah Almighty commanded the people to perform their ritual prayer in the shape of the name “Ahmed”.

  • That is to say: the prayer position of qiyam (standing upright) resembles the Arabic letter ‘alif’.
  • The ruk’u (bending from the waist) resembles the letter ‘ha’,
  • the sajda (prostration) resembles the letter ‘mim’, and
  • the final position of jalsa (kneeling) resembles the letter ‘dal’.
  • (In Arabic the name Ahmad contains these consonants: alif, ha, mim, dal).

Then the Lord Almighty created the Prophet’s {s}esembling in their forms the shape of the name “Muhammad”.

  • The head is round, like the letter ‘mim’.
  • The two hands resemble the letter ‘ha’,
  • the belly again resembles a ‘mim’, and
  • the feet resemble a ‘dal’.

And now, oh ye desirous of learning divine secrets! I will now put forth to you the circumstances of the birth of the Holy Prophet , his mission and the revelation of the Quran and its holy words, by the leave of the Almighty Lord, Allah.

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